Polydopamine (PDAM), a mussel adhesive protein inspired coating that can be easily deposited onto a wide range of metallic, inorganic, and organic materials, gains interest also in the field of biomaterials. In this work, PDAM is applied as coating on 316L stainless steel (SS) stents and the response of cells of the blood vessel wall, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) as predictors for re‐endothelialization is tested. It is found that the PDAM‐modified surface significantly enhances HUVEC adhesion, proliferation, and migration, release of nitric oxide (NO), and secretion of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). Additionally, the PDAM‐modified surface shows a remarkable ability to decrease the adhesion and proliferation of HUASMCs. As a blood‐contacting material, the PDAM tends to improve the hemocompatibility compared with the substrate 316L SS. It is noteworthy that the PDAM coating shows good resistance to the deformation behavior of compression and expansion of a stent. These data suggest the potential of PDAM as a blood‐contacting material for the application in vascular stents or grafts.