Recent investigations have demonstrated that polydopamine (PDA)-modified surfaces were beneficial to the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). In this work, PDA coated 316L stainless steels (316L SS) were thermally treated at 50, 100, and 150 C respectively (hereafter designated as Th50, Th100, and Th150) and consequently produced diverse surface chemical components. In vitro hemocompatibility and vascular cell-material interactions with ECs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) affected by surface characteristics have been investigated. The Th150, rich in quinone, showed the best hemocompatibility and could effectively inhibit platelet adhesion, activation, and fibrinogen conformation transition. The polydopamine-modified surfaces were found to induce dramatic cell-material interaction with enhanced ECs proliferation, viability and migration, release of nitric oxide (NO), and reduced SMCs proliferation. The inhibitory effect of SMCs proliferation might be associated with the surface catechol content. The coating on Th150 showed a good resistance to the deformation of compression and expansion of vascular stents. These results effectively suggested that the Th150 coating might be promising when served as a stent coating platform. ©2013 American Chemical Society.