INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND BILINGUALISM,2019年22(3):290-302 ISSN：1367-0050
Tsung, Linda T. H.
[Tsung, Linda T. H.] Univ Sydney, Dept Chinese Studies, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;[Zhang, Lubei] Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Sch Foreign Languages, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
[Tsung, Linda T. H.] Univ Sydney, Dept Chinese Studies, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Bilingual education;family language practice;Tibetan students;government language policy
This paper explores the intersection between government bilingual education policy in schools for Tibetan students and family language practices at home and looks at the implications of such practices. Summaries of empirical data and critical analysis are reported from Qinghai in China. A field study was conducted in Tibetan areas in Qinghai between 2013 and 2016. This fieldwork included school visits, observation and interviews undertaken with teachers, principals and parents. This paper draws from findings based on interviews with Tibetan parents. The results of this research provide insights into the links between bilingual education programs and family members' decision-making processes. A major conclusion is that there are conflicts between top-down government language policies and bottom-up family language practice. These conflicts arise as Government policies discount the crucial support system parents provide for children's language learning at home and bilingual education programs in schools. Additionally, socio-economic and educational factors outside the scope of Government Language Education policies may have a significant influence on bilingual education practices, multilingual achievement and the career success of the younger generation of Tibetans.
Steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) have been widely used in the neural engineering and cognitive neuroscience researches. Previous studies have indicated that the SSVEP fundamental frequency responses are correlated with the topological properties of the functional networks entrained by the periodic stimuli. Given the different spatial and functional roles of the fundamental frequency and harmonic responses, in this study we further investigated the relation between the harmonic responses and the corresponding functional networks, using the graph theoretical analysis. We found that the second harmonic responses were positively correlated to the mean functional connectivity, clustering coefficient, and global and local efficiencies, while negatively correlated with the characteristic path lengths of the corresponding networks. In addition, similar pattern occurred with the lowest stimulus frequency (6.25 Hz) at the third harmonic responses. These findings demonstrate that more efficient brain networks are related to larger SSVEP responses. Furthermore, we showed that the main connection pattern of the SSVEP harmonic response networks originates from the interactions between the frontal and parietal-occipital regions. Overall, this study may bring new insights into the understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SSVEP.
The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO(2). In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.
Saving energy is a major challenge for the development and safety of the world. Researchers at home and abroad have been continuously working on energy saving technology in the tunnel ventilation for decades. Based on segmented longitudinal ventilation for extra-long road tunnels, the main ventilation mode and utilization method of natural wind energy in extra-long road tunnel were analyzed in this paper. In addition, the possible velocity distribution of natural wind in each section under wind pressure was investigated. Principles of natural wind in each tunnel section were studied based on long-term monitored meteorological factors. Accordingly, a fan equipment configuration method with high guaranteed rate during tunnel operation was proposed. A calculation method for energy-saving network ventilation in the tunnels was established. A feasible and efficient optimized energy-saving ventilation strategy was proposed, which utilizes natural wind and reduces the operation energy consumption. Thus, the annual energy saving in ventilation can reach up to 43.2% compared to previous energy costs when the intelligent ventilation system works. The research results can properly combine natural wind energy with mechanical ventilation to realize the smart self-energy saving in extra-long tunnels.
Frontiers of Computer Science,2013年7(2):272-278 ISSN：2095-2228
[Zhou, Yu; Dong, Xinfeng] Science and Technology on Communication Security Laboratory, Chengdu, 610041, China;[Zhang, Weiguo; Xiao, Guozhen] State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, Xidian University, Xi'an, 710071, China;[Li, Juan] Foreign Language Department, Emei Campus, Southwest Jiaotong University, Emei, 614202, China;[Zhang, Weiguo] State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China
The global avalanche characteristics (the sum-of-squares indicator and the absolute indicator) measure the overall avalanche characteristics of a cryptographic Boolean function. Sung et al. (1999) gave the lower bound on the sum-of-squares indicator for a balanced Boolean function satisfying the propagation criterion with respect to some vectors. In this paper, if balanced Boolean functions satisfy the propagation criterion with respect to some vectors, we give three necessary and sufficient conditions on the auto-correlation distribution of these functions reaching the minimum the bound on the sum-of-squares indicator. And we also find all Boolean functions with 3-variable, 4-variable, and 5-variable reaching the minimum the bound on the sum-of-squares indicator.