Steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) have been widely used in the neural engineering and cognitive neuroscience researches. Previous studies have indicated that the SSVEP fundamental frequency responses are correlated with the topological properties of the functional networks entrained by the periodic stimuli. Given the different spatial and functional roles of the fundamental frequency and harmonic responses, in this study we further investigated the relation between the harmonic responses and the corresponding functional networks, using the graph theoretical analysis. We found that the second harmonic responses were positively correlated to the mean functional connectivity, clustering coefficient, and global and local efficiencies, while negatively correlated with the characteristic path lengths of the corresponding networks. In addition, similar pattern occurred with the lowest stimulus frequency (6.25 Hz) at the third harmonic responses. These findings demonstrate that more efficient brain networks are related to larger SSVEP responses. Furthermore, we showed that the main connection pattern of the SSVEP harmonic response networks originates from the interactions between the frontal and parietal-occipital regions. Overall, this study may bring new insights into the understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SSVEP.
The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO(2). In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.
Frontiers of Computer Science,2013年7(2):272-278 ISSN：2095-2228
[Zhou, Yu; Dong, Xinfeng] Science and Technology on Communication Security Laboratory, Chengdu, 610041, China;[Zhang, Weiguo; Xiao, Guozhen] State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, Xidian University, Xi'an, 710071, China;[Li, Juan] Foreign Language Department, Emei Campus, Southwest Jiaotong University, Emei, 614202, China;[Zhang, Weiguo] State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China
The global avalanche characteristics (the sum-of-squares indicator and the absolute indicator) measure the overall avalanche characteristics of a cryptographic Boolean function. Sung et al. (1999) gave the lower bound on the sum-of-squares indicator for a balanced Boolean function satisfying the propagation criterion with respect to some vectors. In this paper, if balanced Boolean functions satisfy the propagation criterion with respect to some vectors, we give three necessary and sufficient conditions on the auto-correlation distribution of these functions reaching the minimum the bound on the sum-of-squares indicator. And we also find all Boolean functions with 3-variable, 4-variable, and 5-variable reaching the minimum the bound on the sum-of-squares indicator.