Objectives: Resilience refers to the ability to effectively cope and positively adapt after adversity or trauma. This study investigated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) for college students with Wenchuan earthquake exposure. Methods: A total of 888 Chinese college students with Wenchuan earthquake exposure completed a set of scales, including the RS, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Self-rating Scale, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. The internal consistency and concurrent validity were investigated. Sex and regional differences were also examined. Results: The results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 4-factor structure was suitable for both Chinese samples 1 and 2. The Cronbach a coefficient was .94 (P < .01), split-half reliability coefficient was .92 (P < .01), and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .82 (P < .01). The total resilience score was correlated negatively with posttraumatic stress disorder (r = 0.21; P < .01), depression (r = 0.45; P < .01), anxiety(r = 0.34; P < .01), and neuroticism (r = 0.23; P < .01), and correlated positively with extraversion (r = 0.23; P < .01). Men showed higher resilience scores than women, and people living in the high earthquake-exposure areas reported higher level of resilience than those from low earthquake-exposure areas. Conclusions: The Chinese version of the RS was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measurement in assessing resilience for Wenchuan earthquake survivors. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Direct discriminant locality preserving projection;face and palmprint recognition;Hammerstein polynomial expansion
Discriminant locality preserving projection (DLPP) is a linear approach that encodes discriminant information into the objective of locality preserving projection and improves its classification ability. To enhance the nonlinear description ability of DLPP, we can optimize the objective function of DLPP in reproducing kernel Hilbert space to form a kernel-based discriminant locality preserving projection (KDLPP). However, KDLPP suffers the following problems: 1) larger computational burden; 2) no explicit mapping functions in KDLPP, which results in more computational burden when projecting a new sample into the low-dimensional subspace; and 3) KDLPP cannot obtain optimal discriminant vectors, which exceedingly optimize the objective of DLPP. To overcome the weaknesses of KDLPP, in this paper, a direct discriminant locality preserving projection with Hammerstein polynomial expansion (HPDDLPP) is proposed. The proposed HPDDLPP directly implements the objective of DLPP in high-dimensional second-order Hammerstein polynomial space without matrix inverse, which extracts the optimal discriminant vectors for DLPP without larger computational burden. Compared with some other related classical methods, experimental results for face and palmprint recognition problems indicate the effectiveness of the proposed HPDDLPP.
[Wang, Jing; Li, Fuhong] Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience Research Center, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China;[Cao, Bihua; Li, Fuhong] School of Psychology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, 330022, China;[Cai, Xueli] Psychological Research and Counseling Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 611756, China;[Gao, Heming] School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China
[Li, Fuhong] Liaoning Normal Univ, Brain & Cognit Neurosci Res Ctr, Dalian 116029, Peoples R China.
The present study is to investigate the brain activation associated with the informative value of negative feedback in rule acquisition. In each trial of a segmented Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, participants were provided with three reference cards and one target card, and were asked to match one of three reference cards to the target card based on a classification rule. Participants received feedback after each match. Participants would acquire the rule after one negative feedback (1-NF condition) or two successive negative feedbacks (2-NF condition). The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results indicated that lateral prefrontal-to-parietal cortices were more active in the 2-NF condition than in the 1-NF condition. The activation in the right lateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior parietal cortex increased gradually with the amount of negative feedback. These results demonstrate that the informative value of negative feedback in rule acquisition might be modulated by the lateral prefronto-parietal loop.
The electrophysiological bases of conflict control in a number interference task was measured in 21 healthy study participants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In the number interference task, participants were instructed to ignore the number words meaning and to report the number of the number words. The number words were 'two', 'three', or 'four'. We focused on the differences between the incongruent condition (e. g. 'two' written four times) and the congruent condition (e. g. four written four times). Scalp ERP analysis revealed that the incongruent condition elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N350-470) than the congruent condition between 350 and 470 ms, and a more late positive deflection (LPC) than the congruent condition between 550 and 650 ms. N350-470 was a critical sign of conflict monitoring in the early phase, and LPC mirrored conflict resolution in the terminal stage. The results provided evidence for the dissociation between conflict monitoring and conflict resolution in the number interference task. NeuroReport 22:979-983 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
[Gao, Heming] School of Psychology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, 330022, China;[Gao, Heming] School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China;[Cai, Xueli] Psychological Research and Counseling Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610031, China;[Li, Fuhong] School of Psychology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, 330022, China. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org;[Zhang, Shu] Teacher Training College, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, 610066, China. Electronic address: Zhangshu317@163.com
[Li, Fuhong] Jiangxi Normal Univ, Sch Psychol, Nanchang 330022, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Shu] Sichuan Normal Univ, Teacher Training Coll, Chengdu 610066, Peoples R China.
A stepwise category-learning task was designed to examine brain activation associated with invariance detection and variance inhibition during category induction (CI). Three stimuli were displayed sequentially and participants were asked to learn the target category based on the invariant feature among stimuli. The processes of invariance detection and variance inhibition were necessary during certain events; however, these processes were not required for other events. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results indicated that the processes of detecting invariant features and inhibiting variant features were associated with significant activation in the left prefrontal cortex, including the left superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as other regions (e.g., bilateral parietal cortex and putamen). These findings confirmed the important role of the fronto-parietal network and striatum in the invariance detection of category learning. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.